Kharkov is the second most populated city in Ukraine, the scientific center of Ukraine, the center of the Kharkov region.
The only city in Ukraine that has a full set of Council of Europe awards: Diploma, Honorary Flag, Table of Europe and the Prize of Europe.
In Soviet times it was the largest center of tank, tractor and turbine construction and the third largest industrial, scientific and transport center after Moscow and Leningrad. In the second half of the XX century - the main transport hub of South-Eastern Europe.
The modern city was founded in 1630 by settlers from central and western Ukraine on the site of an ancient Russian fortified settlement, sometimes identified as a Polovtsian town of the 11th century Sharukani or the Hunnish city of the 5th century of Kharkov. From December 1917 to January 1918, the capital of the Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets, in February-March 1918, the capital of the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic, in March-June 1919 and from December 19, 1919 to June 24, 1934 - the capital of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic .
In the city there are 142 research institutes, 45 higher educational institutions, including the Kharkov University (the fifth in the Russian Empire, founded in 1805) and the Polytechnic Institute (the second polytechnic university of the Russian Empire, founded in 1885), in which 230,000 students study; 16 museums, a city art gallery, 6 state theaters, 80 libraries.
He was awarded the Order of Lenin (December 4, 1970) and the October Revolution (August 23, 1983), as well as the awards of the Council of Europe (April 29, 2010). July 8, 2013 the city council of Kharkov awarded the city the title of "city of military glory" (the first time in the history of Ukraine).
The local government is the Kharkov City Council.
In 2012, was one of the four cities of Ukraine that hosted the European Football Championship 2012.