Kharkov - the second largest city of Ukraine, the administrative center of the Kharkiv region. It was the largest center tanko-, tractor-, turbine, and the third largest industrial, scientific and transport center of the Soviet Union after Moscow and Leningrad. In the second half of the XX century - the main transport hub of South-East Europe.
The modern city was founded around 1654 on the site (within the walls) of ancient settlement Kharkiv, sometimes identified as the city of XI century Kipchak Sharukan or Hun city of V century Kharkov. From December 1917 to January 1918 the capital of the Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets, in February - March 1918, the capital of the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic, in March - June 1919, and December 19, 1919 to June 24, 1934 - the capital of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic .